Konsep GHOST- CAP untuk Proteksi Otak Perioperatif pada Cedera Otak Traumatik

Dewi Yulianti Bisri, Tatang Bisri

Abstract


Kerusakan otak adalah cedera yang menyebabkan rusak atau memburuknya sel otak yang disebabkan oleh berbagai kondisi seperti trauma kepala, pasokan oksigen yang tidak memadai, infeksi atau perdarahan intrakranial. Proteksi otak adalah intervensi terapeutik preemptif untuk memperbaiki outcome neurologik pada pasien yang berisiko terjadinya iskemi serebral, sedangkan resusitasi otak merujuk ke intervensi terapeutik yang dimulai setelah terjadinya iskemi. Targetnya adalah terapi iskemi dan mengurangi cedera neuron. Kerusakan otak perioperatif adalah salah satu komplikasi merugikan yang paling serius dari operasi dan anestesi, mengakibatkan defisit neurologis baru pasca operasi.
Konsep GHOST-CAP, yang merupakan akronim dari Glycemia, Hemoglobin, Oxygen, Sodium, Temperature, Comfort, Arterial Pressure dan PaCO2, digunakan pada periode pascaoperatif. G: target level glukosa antara 80 dan 180 mg/dL. H: hemoglobin, ambang batas 7–9g/dL. O: oksigen, targetkan SpO2 antara 94 dan 97%. S: konsentrasi sodium mempengaruhi volume otak, kadar sodium hingga 155 mEq/L dapat ditoleransi. T: temperatur diatur untuk mengoptimalkan fungsi seluler, tetapi suhu inti > 38,0°C harus dihindari. C: kenyamanan pasien (comfort), termasuk kontrol nyeri, agitasi, kecemasan, dan menggigil. A: tekanan darah arteri adalah penentu utama aliran darah otak (CBF), pertahankan tekanan arteri rata-rata (MAP) 80 mmHg dan tekanan perfusi otak (CPP) 60 mmHg. P: perubahan akut PaCO2 menyebabkan perubahan CBF, maka PaCO2 tidak boleh kurang dari 35 mmHg. Tulisan ini mengkaji konsep GHOST-CAP untuk proteksi otak perioperatif, apakah cukup memadai atau harus ditambah.

 

GHOST-CAP Concept for Perioperative Brain Protection in Traumatic Brain Injury

Abstract

Brain damage is an injury that causes damage or worsening of brain cells caused by various conditions such as head trauma, inadequate oxygen supply, infection or intracranial hemorrhage. Brain protection is a preemptive measure of therapeutic interventions to improve neurological outcomes in patients at risk of cerebral ischemic, while brain resuscitation refers to therapeutic interventions that begin after the occurrence of ischemic. The target is ischemic therapy and reducing neuronal injury. Perioperative brain damage is one of the most serious adverse complications of surgery and anesthesia, resulting in new postoperative neurological deficits.
The concept of GHOST-CAP, an acronym for Glycemia, Hemoglobin, Oxygen, Sodium, Temperature, Comfort, Arterial Pressure and PaCO2, can be used in the postoperative period. G: The target level of glucose is between 80 and 180 mg/dL. H: hemoglobin threshold is 7-9 g/dL. O: oxygen, target SpO2 between 94 and 97%. S: Sodium concentration affects brain volume, sodium levels up to 155 mEq/L are tolerable. T: temperatures regulated to optimize cellular function, but core temperatures > 38.0°C should be avoided. C: patient comfort, including pain control, agitation, anxiety, and chills. A: Arterial blood pressure is the main determinant of cerebral blood flow (CBF), maintaining an mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 80 mmHg and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) of 60 mmHg. P: Acute changes in PaCO2 cause CBF changes, PaCO2 not to be less than 35 mmHg. This paper examines the GHOST-CAP concept for perioperative brain protection, whether adequate or should be supplemented


Keywords


Cedera otak traumatik, konsep GHOST- CAP, proteksi otak, perioperatif

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24244/jni.v11i2.472

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