Tatalaksana Anestesi pada Pasien Geriatri dengan Hematoma Subdural, Intraserebral, dan Subarahnoid yang Menjalani Kraniotomi Evakuasi Hematoma

Monika Widiastuti, Iwan Abdul Rachman, Nazaruddin Umar

Abstract


Cedera otak traumatik pada geriatri memiliki insiden 7–34% dengan penyebab utama adalah jatuh. Perdarahan subdural merupakan jenis cedera yang paling sering terjadi pada populasi geriatri. Hal ini sesuai dengan proses penuaan yang terjadi pada jaringan otak sehingga menyebabkan populasi ini sering mengalami perdarahan subdural jika mengalami cedera. Pasien perempuan berusia 72 tahun datang dengan keluhan nyeri kepala pasca terjatuh 6 hari sebelum masuk rumah sakit. Dari pemeriksaan fisik ditemukan kesadaran E3M5V6, tanpa adanya kelainan dan defisit neurologis dan hemodinamika stabil. Dari pemeriksaan penunjang Computed Tomography (CT) scan ditemukan subdural hematoma di regio frontotemporoparietalis dextra dan regio frontalis et temporalis sinistra yang menyebabkan midline shift ke arah sinistra, perdarahan subarahnoid di regio frontalis sinistra, perdarahan intraserebral di lobus temporalis sinistra. Operasi kraniotomi evakuasi hematoma dilakukan selama 3 jam dengan anestesi umum. Pertimbangan anestesi pada pasien ini adalah neuroanestesi dan anestesi geriatri dengan memperhatikan proses penuaan yang mempengaruhi perubahan fisiologi dan farmakologi pada pasien geriatri, riwayat komorbiditas dan polifarmasi. Tatalaksana perioperatif yang baik penting untuk mencegah cedera sekunder pada jaringan otak.

 

Anesthetic Management of Geriatri Patient with Subdural, Intracerebral, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Underwent Craniotomy for Hematoma Evacuation


Abstract

Worldwide, the incidence of traumatic brain injury in geriatrics is 7–34%, with falls as the most common cause. Subdural hemorrhage is the most common injury that occur and is associated with the aging process of the brain, making geriatric patients prone developing subdural hemorrhage. A 72-years-old female came with a headache after fell to the ground 6 days before hospital admission. Physical examination revealed E3M5V6 without neurologic deficits and hemodynamically stable. A computed tomography scan resulted in subdural hematoma in right frontotemporoparietal region causing midline shifting to the left, subarachnoid hemorrhage in the left frontal region, intracerebral hemorrhage in the left temporal lobe. The patient underwent craniotomy evacuation of hematoma and lasted for 3 hours under general anesthesia. Anesthetic concerns are neuroanesthesia and geriatric patient considering the aging process affects physiologic and pharmacologic changes, comorbidities and polypharmacy. Comprehensive perioperative management is essential to prevent secondary brain injury and improve the outcome.


Keywords


Anestesi geriatri, cedera otak traumatik, geriatri, neuroanestesi, perdarahan subdural

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24244/jni.v11i2.449

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