Anestesi Posisi Prone untuk Pengangkatan Tumor Torakal Posterior Pasien Pediatri dengan Malnutrisi Kronis dan Gangguan Metabolik

Kulsum Kulsum, Iwan Abdul Rachman, MM. Rudi Prihatno, Zafrullah Kany Jasa

Abstract


Malnutrisi kronis adalah suatu keadaan dimana tubuh mengalami gangguan dalam penggunaan zat gizi untuk pertumbuhan, perkembangan dan aktivitas. Gangguan metabolik yaitu kondisi adanya kelainan proses metabolisme pada tubuh akibat defisiensi enzim atau hormon. Posisi prone pada neuroanestesi pediatrik tulang belakang dilakukan untuk mencapai tekanan perfusi otak dan tulang belakang yang normal. Tujuan kasus ini membahas pengelolaan neuroanestesi pediatrik pada posisi prone dengan adanya kelainan malnutrisi kronis merupakan hal yang rumit sehingga diperlukan manajemen agar menghasilkan outcome yang baik. Anak laki laki, 8 tahun, 15 kg, 102 cm, benjolan di punggung belakang yang keluar merembes cairan dengan diameter 7 cm sejak lahir, kelemahan anggota gerak, buang air besar dan buang air kecil tertahan. Dilakukan VP-shunt 2 minggu lalu. Premedikasi dengan midazolam dan fentanyl. Induksi menggunakan propofol dan ada penambahan saat laringoskopi dan intubasi. Fasilitas intubasi dengan atracurium. Pemeliharaan anestesi dengan O2 + udara + sevofluran 2% dengan fraksi oksigen 50% + propofol dan rocuronium bolus intravena. Monitoring tanda vital (tekanan darah, denyut jantung, frekuensi nafas, saturasi oksigen, jumlah dan warna urin) serta end tidal CO2. Hasil setelah pengangkatan tumor selama 2 jam hemodinamik relatif stabil, tekanan darah 100–120/60–80 mmHg. Pasien ditempatkan di Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Simpulan: diperlukan manajemen neuroanestesi pediatrik untuk menangani kasus malnutrisi kronik dan gangguan metabolik pada pengangkatan tumor torakal posterior agar menghasilkan outcome yang baik.

 

Prone Position Anesthesia for Posterior Thoracal Tumor Removal Pediatric Patient with Chronic Malnutrition and Metabolic Disorder

Abstract

Chronic malnutrition is a condition where the body experiences a disruption in the use of nutrients for growth, development and activity. Metabolic disorders are conditions in which there are abnormal metabolic processes in the body due to enzyme or hormone deficiency. The prone position in pediatric spinal neuroanesthesia is performed to achieve normal cerebral and spinal perfusion pressure. The purpose of this case is to discuss the management of pediatric neuroanesthesia in the complicated prone position in order to produce good outcomes. Boy, 8 years old, 15 kg, 102 cm, a lump in the back that came out seeping fluid with a diameter of 7 cm from birth, weakness in limbs, bowel movements and urinary retention. Performed a VP shunt 2 weeks ago. The premedication method uses midazolam and fentanyl. Induction uses propofol and there are additions during laryngoscopy and intubation. Intubation facilities with atracurium. Maintenance of anesthesia with O2 + air + sevoflurane 2% with 50% oxygen fraction + propofol and intravenous rocuronium bolus. Monitoring vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, amount and color of urine) and end tidal CO2. Tumor removal results for 2 hours hemodynamically are relatively stable, blood pressure 60–80/40–50 mmHg. Patients are admit to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Conclusion: pediatric neuroanesthesia management is needed to handle chronic malnutrition and metabolic disorders in the removal of posterior thoracic tumors in order to produce good outcomes.


Keywords


malnutrisi kronis; gangguan metabolik; posisi prone; pediatrik; chronic malnutrition; metabolic disorders; prone position

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24244/jni.v8i3.237

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DOI:  https://doi.org/10.24244/jni 

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