Anestesi untuk Seksio Sesarea pada Pasien dengan Hipertensi Intrakranial Idiopatik

Dewi Yulianti Bisri

Abstract


Hipertensi intrakranial idiopatik (Idiophatic intracranial hypertension/IIH) atau benign intracranial hypertension atau pseudotumor cerebri adalah kasus jarang dengan penyebab yang tidak diketahui, dan paling sering terlihat pada wanita obes dalam masa reproduktif (19,3/100.000), dan kadang-kadang terjadi pada wanita hamil. Hipertensi intrakranial idiopatik adalah suatu sindroma yang khas dengan adanya peningkatan tekanan intrakranial tanpa hidrocefalus atau lesi massa dengan peningkatan tekanan cairan cerebrospinal dan komposisi cairan serebrospinal yang normal. Kehamilan dan estrogen eksogen dapat memicu IIH atau memperburuknya. Dapat terjadi pada setiap semester kehamilan, dan outcome visual sama seperti wanita tidak hamil dengan IIH. Tidak ada peningkatan keguguran, abortus terapeutikus untuk membatasi perkembangan IIH tidak merupakan indikasi, dan kehamilan selanjutnya tidak meningkatkan risiko kekambuhan. Gambaran klinis sakit kepala dan kehilangan penglihatan dengan adanya papil edema. Tujuan terapi adalah melindungi penglihatan dan memperbaiki keluhan. Terapi medikal umumnya analgesik, kortikosteroid, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, dan diuretik; bila pengendalian adekuat tidak tercapai maka indikasi dilakukan punksi lumbal untuk mengeluarkan cairan serebrospinal, pengakhiran kehamilan melalai rute yang paling cepat, apakah dilakukan melalui induksi persalinan atau seksio sesarea. Prognosis IIH pada kehamilan baik untuk ibu dan bayi. Anestesi dapat dilakukan dengan spinal anestesia, epidural anestesia, combined spinal epidural atau anestesi umum

Anesthesia for Caesarean Section in Patient with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) or benign intracranial hypertension or pseudotumor cerebri is a rare disorder of unknown etiology that is most often seen in obese women of reproductive age (19.3/100,000) and is reported only occasionally during pregnancy. It is a syndrome characterized by increased intracranial pressure without hydrocephalus or mass lession with elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and normal CSF composition. Both pregnancy and exogenous estrogens are though to promote IIH or worsen it. It can occur in any trisemester during pregnancy, and the visual outcome is the same as for non pregnant patient with IIH. There is no increase in fetal wastage; therapeutic abortion to limit its progression is not indicated, and subsequent pregnancies do not increase the risk of reccurence. Clinically present headache and loss of visions objectifying papil edema. The aim of treatment is to preserve vision and improve symptoms. The usual medical treatment is based on analgesics, corticosteriod, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and diuretics; if adequate control is not achieved are indicated lumbar puncture for extracting CSF. Uncontrolled intracranial hypertension required to end the pregnancy by quickest route, either through induction or caesaeran section. The prognosis for IIH in pregnancy is excelent for both mother and baby. Anesthesia can be done with spinal anestheia, epidural anesthesia, combined spinal epidural or general anesthesia


Keywords


anestesi; hipertensi intrakranial idiopatik; kehilangan penglihatan; seksio sesarea; Anesthesia; idiophatic intracranial hypertension; visual loss; caesarean section

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24244/jni.vol7i3.22

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DOI:  https://doi.org/10.24244/jni 

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