Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) 1-Α dan Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) pada Stroke Iskemik Fase Akut

Lisda Amalia, Ida Parwati, Ahmad Rizal, Ramdan Panigoro, Uni Gamayani, Al Rasyid, Nur Atiik

Abstract


Stroke iskemik merupakan salah satu penyebab stroke tersering, disebabkan oleh oklusi pembuluh darah serebral dan penyebab kematian ketiga. Saat awitan stroke iskemik terjadi, area otak yang diperdarahi oleh pembuluh darah akan kekurangan oksigen dan nutrisi sehingga sel otak terutama neuron berada dalam risiko, neuron ini masih dapat berfungsi yang dikenal sebagai penumbra. Hipoksik, salah satu karakteristik penumbra merupakan stimulus utama regulasi protein HIF-1α. Hipoksik sendiri merupakan stimulus utama prekondisi iskemik. Prekondisi iskemik akan menghasilkan fenotipe tahan hipoksia yakni protein hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α. HIF-1α merupakan satu-satunya zat yang dikeluarkan oleh jaringan yang mengalami hipoksia. HIF-1α bertindak sebagai protein sinyal yang dapat meregulasi gen protein lain. Efektor HIF-1α antara lain eritropoitin dan vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Pertumbuhan, diferensiasi dan ketahanan sel endotel diregulasi oleh VEGF yang distimulasi dari HIF-1α. Selama iskemik serebral, jaringan yang rusak mencoba untuk meningkatkan pengiriman oksigen melalui induksi angiogenesis melalui produksi VEGF. Hal ini ditandai dengan adanya peningkatan jumlah pembuluh-pembuluh darah mikro di area infark. VEGF dan reseptornya diregulasi oleh HIF-1α dalam hari pertama iskemik.

Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) 1-Α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Acute Ischemic Stroke

Abstract

Ischemic stroke is one of the most common causes of stroke, caused by cerebral vascular occlusion and the third cause of death. When the onset of an ischemic stroke occurs, the area of the brain bleeding by blood vessels will lack oxygen and nutrients so that brain cells, especially neurons, are at risk, these neurons can still function known as penumbra. Hypoxic, one of the characteristics of penumbra is the main stimulus for regulation of HIF-1α protein. Hypoxia itself is the main stimulus of ischemic precondition. The ischemic precondition will produce a hypoxic-resistant phenotype namely protein hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) -1α. HIF-1αis the only substance released by tissue that experiences hypoxia. HIF-1α acts as a signaling protein that can regulate other protein genes. Effectors of HIF-1αinclude erythropoitin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Growth, differentiation and endurance of endothelial cells are regulated by VEGF stimulated from HIF-1α. During cerebral ischemia, damaged tissue tries to increase oxygen delivery through induction of angiogenesis through VEGF production. This is characterized by an increase in the number of micro blood vessels in the infarct area. VEGF and its receptors are regulated by HIF-1α in the first day of ischemia.


Keywords


stroke iskemik akut; HIF-1α; luaran klinis; VEGF; acute ischemic stroke; clinical outcome; HIF-1α; VEGF

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24244/jni.v8i3.218

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DOI:  https://doi.org/10.24244/jni 

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